Civil Society Participation as a Building Block of Good Governance: The Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines Experience
Yasay, D. 2018. Civil Society Participation as a Building Block of Good Governance: The Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines Experience. ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement. Volume 2(1), pp.65-86
|Dixon Yasay||- Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan
In a developing country such as the Philippines, where call for change is relentless, the inclusive participation of the citizens has become vital. In 2012, the Aquino Administration launched the Bottom-up Budgeting (BUB) Program to bolster inclusive growth, grassroots empowerment, and good governance at the local level. In Cagayan de Oro City (CdeO), BUB sought to increase citizens’ access to local service delivery with a demand-driven budget planning process and to strengthen government accountability in local public service provision (Openbub.gov, 2012). Using the Most Significant Change (MSC) approach, this study examined the dynamics of Civil Society Organizations’ participation in BUB-funded projects that have helped the Local Government Unit (LGU) develop a more progressive perspective in governance and its replicability in other areas. There has been formal recognition by the LGU of the valuable contributions of CSOs to the City’s growth, in the form of strengthened commitment towards poverty alleviation, productive partnerships, and the establishment of the City CSO Affairs Office. The interplay of the CSOs, government stakeholders, and private institutions in the City remains relevant. BUB has been anchored on strong community involvement, open government, and people’s multifaceted agenda for the City, even in the face of the Duterte administration’s plan to replace BUB with a relatively similar system, the Assistance to Disadvantaged Municipalities Program (ADMP). Once institutionalized in the local bureaucracy, civil society participation will continue to keep alight the torch of cooperation in building the fourth metropolis in the country, even as we are buffeted by winds of uncertainty brought about by social and political challenges.
Civil Society Organizations; Bottom-up Budgeting Process; Participatory Budgeting; Community Engagements, Grassroots Development
Ateneo de Manila Institute of Philippine Culture (2013), Bottom-Up Budgeting Process Evaluation [PDF Document]. Retrieved May 2017 from
Affiliated Network for Social Accountability in East Asia and the Pacific (ANSA-EAP), Partnership for Transparency Fund (PTF), Coalition Against Corruption Makati Business Club (CAC-MBC) (2013). Participatory Barangay Planning and Budgeting: Lessons from Experiences [PDF Document]. Retrieved May 2017.
Asian Development Bank (2013). Civil Society Brief: Philippines. [PDF Document]. Retrieved June 2018 from
Asian Development Bank (2007). Civil Society Brief: Philippines. [PDF Document]. Retrieved June 2018 from
Cabacungan, G., Philippine Daily Inquirer (2013), Aquino shifts P20B to war on poverty. Retrieved May 2017 from
Coronel, Watchdog Watcher (2012). Highway robbery: Investigating corruption in road projects. Retrieved May 2017 from
Davies, Rick and Dart, Jess (2005), Using the ‘Most Significant Change’ (MSC) Technique to measure the intangible. Retrieved May 2017 from
DBM-DILG-DSWD-NAPC Joint Memorandum Circular No. 7 series of 2015 (Joint Memorandum Circular-7-2015). Retrieved May 2017.
Executive Order No. 72 series of 2014 (EO 72-2014). An Order Creating the Oro Youth Development Council. Retrieved May 2017 from Local Government Unit of Cagayan de Oro. Retrieved May 2017.
Executive Order No. 97 series of 2015 (EO 97-2015). An Order Recognizing the Cagayan de Oro Peoples Council. Retrieved May 2017 from Local Government Unit of Cagayan de Oro.
Fraenkel, Jack R and Wallen, Norman E. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education Fifth Ed. McGraw Hill, New York 2003
Macasaet, S., Rappler (2014). Bottom-up budgeting: Moving up, but long way to go. Retrieved from May 2017
Miraflor, L., Philippine Information Agency. DOLE 10 grants P500K BUB livelihood to Oroquieta federal union. Retrieved May 2017 from
National Anti-Poverty Commission (2012). Bottom-Up Budgeting Process. Retrieved May 2017 from
Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines and OpenBUB (2012) A Social Contract with the Filipino People. Retrieved May 2017 from
Ong, T., Rappler (2013). Bottom-up budgeting: Experience at the grassroots? Retrieved May 2017 from
Oxford University Press (n.d.). Oxford Dictionaries: Barangay in the Philippines. Retrieved June 2018 from
Ragonjan, Nadine S., The Asia Foundation (2010). To Increase Transparency, Make Local Budgets Public in the Philippines. Retrieved July 2017 from
Rey, A., Rappler (2016) Gov't allots P35B for 2017 'Bottom-up' budget. Retrieved May 2017 from
Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Case study research design. Retrieved May 2017 from .
Soliman, Sandino, Municipal CSO Networks take on grassroots budgeting and planning (2014). Retrieved May 2017 from
United Nations Development Programme (2010). Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in the Philippines. [PDF Document] Retrieved June 2018 from
United Nations Development Programme (2003). Human Development Report 2003:
Millennium Development Goals: A compact among nations to end poverty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
World Bank (2016), Local Government Support Fund (LGSF) Project Implementation Assessment: Findings and Recommendations [PDF Document]. Retrieved May 2017 from
Writing@CSU (2014). Writing Guides. Retrieved June 2017 from